Job guarantee and rotation: a way towards an inclusive labour market?
A policy briefing by Professor David Etherington, Staffordshire University and Elizabeth Taylor, Employment Related Services Association (July 2022)

There is a view that ‘official’ unemployment rates mask a substantial hidden unemployment according to researchers from Sheffield Hallam University. They argue that the substantial increase in economically inactive and those claiming long term health benefits should be viewed as comprising a rising number of long term unemployed.[1] A large proportion of this cohort, with the appropriate health, training, and childcare support, could be able to access available jobs.

There are therefore calls for a back-to-work strategy involving a Job Guarantee for young people and the long-term unemployed which also involves pathways to vocational training.[2] Job Rotation (JR) can play a crucial role in such a strategy, linking a range of tried and tested employability support (including pre-employment training and coaching), lifelong learning and in-work support. Evaluations show a high rate of job retention – around 75% of unemployed JR participants gain permanent jobs.[3] More important the model plays a crucial role in upskilling the economy.

With the phasing out of the Job Retention Scheme and the Kickstart programme, this is a particularly opportune time to be thinking about Job Rotation. Is it an idea whose time has come?

What is Job Rotation?

The model enables employees to be released from work to undertake study, by replacing them with substitutes who have been unemployed. Through this model, those otherwise excluded from the workforce, are given a unique opportunity for paid work experience and vocational training. Employers benefit because production continues while staff are freed up to develop their skills. This model has been mainstreamed in some European countries, and successfully piloted in Scotland. An essential ingredient of the JR model is the role of social dialogue and the bringing together of relevant labour market partners, including trade unions and worker representatives.

There is a resurgence of JR initiatives in Denmark[4] promoted by the Government, trade unions and Danish local government association (KL). There have also been small-scale initiatives in the UK.[5]

How does JR work?

The JR process is based on a seamless rotation model comprised of:

How could it be funded?

There is no hard and fast prescribed model but it generally involves:

This could involve packaging funds from a range of sources (e.g. employment programmes, Universal Credit, the Apprenticeship Levy and LEP-matched funds).

What are the benefits of Job Rotation?

(1) JR meets three separate but inter-related needs of local economies: tackling unemployment, addressing skills shortages, encouraging business development through staff training and learning and the promotion of Lifelong Learning.

 (2) JR helps disadvantaged labour market groups by providing a period of paid work placement, along with the opportunity to improve their vocational skills and qualifications.

(3) Employers reap the benefits of enhanced training for existing employees, and the enhanced capabilities of future employees, improving their retention, reducing turnover and saving costs to their business.

We know that it’s difficult to engage employers/businesses in programmes, largely due to the number and complexity of programmes[6]. The JR model is effective and efficient in reaching its target groups and reduces the potential for programme duplication and employers being approached by multiple providers.[7]

A number of smaller businesses could be connected to secure volume in the JR activity, allowing the development of bespoke courses for employees from the different companies. This is already a tried and tested approach in the employability sector that improves employer engagement. For example, in Health and Social Care, JR could provide career routes for low-skilled workers without loss of staffing cover for essential services.

There is scope for Combined Authorities and City Regions to pilot and test this model in local and regional labour markets in the UK, with potential for scalability. JR provides opportunities for unemployed people and upskills existing employees. It can be applied in both public and private sectors and could be particularly useful for sectors or businesses who struggle to recruit and could be a solution to the UK’s long-lamented under-skilled labour market.

[1] Beatty C and Fothergill S (2022) The Real Level of Unemployment 2022: The Myth of Full Employment across Britain, Sheffield, Sheffield Hallam University


[3] Kruhøffer J (2007) Job Rotation in Europe as the Feasibility environment for the Jobrotation e-Service, Berlin AOF


[5] Etherington D (2008) A strategy for an inclusive labour market, Feasibility Study for a Job Rotation Pilot for Incapacity Benefit Claimants in Ealing, Report to Ealing Primary Care NHS Mental Health Trust, London, Middlesex University